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Quote of the day: He was looked up to with reverence for h
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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book III Chapter 44: The Story of Virginia[450 BC]
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This was followed by a second atrocity, the result of brutal lust, which occurred in the City and led to consequences no less tragic than the outrage and death of Lucretia, which had brought about the expulsion of the royal family. Not only was the end of the decemvirs the same as that of the kings, but the cause of their losing their power was the same in each case. Appius Claudius had conceived a guilty passion for a girl [Note 1] of plebeian birth. The girl's father, Lucius Verginius, held a high rank in the army on Algidus; he was a man of exemplary character both at home and in the field. His wife had been brought up on equally high principles, and their children were being brought up in the same way. He had betrothed his daughter to Lucius Icilius, who had been tribune, an active and energetic man whose courage had been proved in his battles for the plebs. This girl, now in the bloom of her youth and beauty, excited Appius' passions, and he tried to prevail on her by presents and promises. When he found that her virtue was proof against all temptation, he had recourse to unscrupulous and brutal violence. He commissioned a client, Marcus Claudius, to claim the girl as his slave, and to bar any claim on the part of her friends to retain possession of her till the case was tried, as he thought that the father's absence afforded a good opportunity for this illegal action [Note 2]. As the girl was going to her school in the Forum -- the grammar schools were held in booths there -- the decemvir's pander laid his hand upon her, declaring that she was the daughter of a slave of his, and a slave herself. He then ordered her to follow him, and threatened, if she hesitated, to carry her off by force. While the girl was stupefied with terror, her maid's shrieks, invoking "the protection of the Quirites," drew a crowd together. The names of her father Verginius and her betrothed lover, Icilius, were held in universal respect. Regard for them brought their friends, feelings of indignation brought the crowd to the maiden's support. She was now safe from violence; the man who claimed her said that he was proceeding according to law, not by violence, there was no need for any excited gathering. He cited the girl into court. Her supporters advised her to follow him; they came before the tribunal of Appius. The claimant rehearsed a story already perfectly familiar to the judge as he was the author of the plot, how the girl had been born in his house, stolen from there, transferred to the house of Verginius and fathered on him; these allegations would be supported by definite evidence, and he would prove them to the satisfaction of Verginius himself, who was really most concerned, as an injury had been done to him. Meanwhile, he urged, it was only right that a slave girl should follow her master. The girl's advocates contended that Verginius was absent on the service of the State, he would be present in two days' time if information were sent to him, and it was contrary to equity that in his absence he should incur risk with regard to his children. They demanded that he should adjourn the whole of the proceedings till the father's arrival, and in accordance with the law which he himself had enacted, grant the custody of the girl to those who asserted her freedom, and not suffer a maiden of ripe age to incur danger to her reputation before her liberty was imperilled.

Note 1: girl = Virginia
Note 2: In cases where a person's status was in question, whether he were a freeman or not, the custody of the person was by the Twelve Tables assigned to those who claimed his freedom, and who had to give security to the other side to produce him for trial. Appius therefore was breaking a law which he had taken a part in enacting.

Event: Life and death of Virginia

Sequitur aliud in urbe nefas, ab libidine ortum, haud minus foedo euentu quam quod per stuprum caedemque Lucretiae urbe regnoque Tarquinios expulerat, ut non finis solum idem decemuiris qui regibus sed causa etiam eadem imperii amittendi esset. Ap. Claudium uirginis plebeiae stuprandae libido cepit. Pater uirginis, L. Verginius, honestum ordinem in Algido ducebat, uir exempli recti domi militiaeque. Perinde uxor instituta fuerat liberique instituebantur. Desponderat filiam L. Icilio tribunicio, uiro acri et pro causa plebis expertae uirtutis. Hanc uirginem adultam forma excellentem Appius amore amens pretio ac spe perlicere adortus, postquam omnia pudore saepta animaduerterat, ad crudelem superbamque uim animum conuertit. M. Claudio clienti negotium dedit, ut uirginem in seruitutem adsereret neque cederet secundum libertatem postulantibus uindicias, quod pater puellae abesset locum iniuriae esse ratus. Virgini uenienti in forum—ibi namque in tabernaculis litterarum ludi erant—minister decemuiri libidinis manum iniecit, serua sua natam seruamque appellans, sequique se iubebat: cunctantem ui abstracturum. Pauida puella stupente, ad clamorem nutricis fidem Quiritium implorantis fit concursus; Vergini patris sponsique Icili populare nomen celebrabatur. Notos gratia eorum, turbam indignitas rei uirgini conciliat. Iam a ui tuta erat, cum adsertor nihil opus esse multitudine concitata ait; se iure grassari, non ui. Vocat puellam in ius. Auctoribus qui aderant ut sequerentur, ad tribunal Appi peruentum est. Notam iudici fabulam petitor, quippe apud ipsum auctorem argumenti, peragit: puellam domi suae natam furtoque inde in domum Vergini translatam suppositam ei esse; id se indicio compertum adferre probaturumque uel ipso Verginio iudice, ad quem maior pars iniuriae eius pertineat; interim dominum sequi ancillam aequum esse. Aduocati puellae, cum Verginium rei publicae causa dixissent abesse, biduo adfuturum si nuntiatum ei sit, iniquum esse absentem de liberis dimicare, postulant ut rem integram in patris aduentum differat, lege ab ipso lata uindicias det secundum libertatem, neu patiatur uirginem adultam famae prius quam libertatis periculum adire.