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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book VII Chapter 19: War with the Etruscans.[354-3 BC]
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Two wars were brought to a successful close this year. The Tiburtines were reduced to submission; the city of Sassula was taken from them and all their other towns would have shared the same fate had not the nation as a whole laid down their arms and made peace with the consul. A triumph was celebrated over them, otherwise the victory was followed by mild treatment of the vanquished. The Tarquinians were visited with the utmost severity. A large number were killed in battle; of the prisoners, all those of noble birth to the number of 358 were sent to Rome, the rest were put to the sword. Those who had been sent to Rome met with no gentler treatment from the people, they were all scourged and beheaded in the middle of the Forum. This punishment was an act of retribution for the Romans who had been immolated in the forum of Tarquinii.

These successes in war induced the Samnites to ask for a league of friendship. Their envoys received a favourable reply from the senate and a treaty of alliance was concluded with them.

The plebs did not enjoy the same good fortune at home which they had met with in the field. In spite of the reduction in the rate of interest, which was now fixed at 8 and 1/3 %, the poor were unable to repay the capital, and were being made over to their creditors. Their personal distress left them little thought for public affairs and political struggles, elections, and patrician consuls; both consulships accordingly remained with the patricians. The consuls elected were Gaius Sulpicius Peticus (for the fourth time) and Marcus Valerius Publicola (for the second).

Rumours were brought that the people of Caere, out of sympathy with their co-nationalists, had sided with the Tarquinians. Whilst the minds of the citizens were in consequence filled with apprehensions of a war with Etruria, the arrival of envoys from Latium diverted their thoughts to the Volscians (353 BC). They reported that an army had been raised and equipped and was now threatening their frontiers and intended to enter and ravage the Roman territory. The senate thought that neither of these movements ought to be ignored; orders were issued for troops to be enrolled for both wars; the consuls were to draw lots for their respective commands.

The arrival of despatches from the consul Sulpicius made the Etruscan war appear the more serious of the two. He was directing the operations against Tarquinii, and reported that the country round the Roman salt-works had been raided and a portion of the plunder sent to Caere, some of whose men had undoubtedly been amongst the depredators. The consul Valerius, who was acting against the Volscians and had his camp on the frontiers of Tusculum, was recalled and received orders from the senate to nominate a dictator. Titus, the son of Lucius Manlius, was nominated, and he named Aulus Cornelius Cossus as Master of the Horse. Finding the army which the consul had commanded sufficient for his purpose, he was authorised by the senate and the people to formally declare war upon the Caerites

Events: War with the Tiburtines, War with the Tarquinians, Third war with Etruria, Third war with the Volscians

Duo bella eo anno prospere gesta: cum Tarquiniensibus Tiburtibusque ad deditionem pugnatum. Sassula ex his urbs capta; ceteraque oppida eandem fortunam habuissent, ni uniuersa gens positis armis in fidem consulis uenisset. Triumphatum de Tiburtibus; alioquin mitis uictoria fuit. In Tarquinienses acerbe saeuitum; multis mortalibus in acie caesis ex ingenti captiuorum numero trecenti quinquaginta octo delecti, nobilissimus quisque, qui Romam mitterentur; uolgus aliud trucidatum. Nec populus in eos qui missi Romam erant mitior fuit: medio in foro omnes uirgis caesi ac securi percussi. Id pro immolatis in foro Tarquiniensium Romanis poenae hostibus redditum. Res bello bene gestae ut Samnites quoque amicitiam peterent effecerunt. Legatis eorum comiter ab senatu responsum; foedere in societatem accepti. Non eadem domi quae militiae fortuna erat plebi Romanae. Nam etsi unciario fenore facto leuata usura erat, sorte ipsa obruebantur inopes nexumque inibant; eo nec patricios ambo consules neque comitiorum curam publicaue studia prae priuatis incommodis plebs ad animum admittebat. Consulatus uterque apud patricios manet; consules creati C. Sulpicius Peticus quartum M. Valerius Publicola iterum. In bellum Etruscum intentam ciuitatem, quia Caeritem populum misericordia consanguinitatis Tarquiniensibus adiunctum fama ferebat, legati Latini ad Volscos conuertere, nuntiantes exercitum conscriptum armatumque iam suis finibus imminere; inde populabundos in agrum Romanum uenturos esse. Censuit igitur senatus neutram neglegendam rem esse; utroque legiones scribi consulesque sortiri prouincias iussit. Inclinauit deinde pars maior curae in Etruscum bellum, postquam litteris Sulpici consulis, cui Tarquinii prouincia euenerat, cognitum est depopulatum agrum circa Romanas salinas praedaeque partem in Caeritum fines auectam et haud dubie iuuentutem eius populi inter praedatores fuisse. Itaque Valerium consulem, Volscis oppositum castraque ad finem Tusculanum habentem, reuocatum inde senatus dictatorem dicere iussit. T. Manlium L. filium dixit. Is cum sibi magistrum equitum A. Cornelium Cossum dixisset, consulari exercitu contentus ex auctoritate patrum ac populi iussu Caeritibus bellum indixit.