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Twelve Emperors by Suetonius

Augustus, Chapter 23: Varus and the Germans[9 AD]
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In all his wars, he [Note 1] never received any signal or ignominious defeat, except twice in Germany, under his lieutenants Lollius and Varus. The former indeed had in it more of dishonour than disaster; but that of Varus threatened the security of the empire itself; three legions, with the commander, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries, being cut off. Upon receiving intelligence of this disaster, he gave orders for keeping a strict watch over the city, to prevent any public disturbance, and prolonged the appointments of the prefects in the provinces, that the allies might be kept in order by experience of persons to whom they were used. He made a vow to celebrate the great games in honour of Jupiter Optimus Maximus, if he would be pleased to restore the state to more prosperous circumstances. This had formerly been resorted to in the Cambrian and Marian. In short, we are informed that he was in such consternation at this event, that he let the hair of his head and beard grow for several months, and sometimes knocked his head against the door-post, crying out, O, Quintilius Varus! give me back my legions! And ever after he observed the anniversary of this calamity, as a day of sorrow and mourning.

Note 1: he = Augustus

Event: Varus and the Germans

Graves ignominias cladesque duas omnino nec alibi quam in Germania accept, Lollianam et Varianam, sed Lollianam maioris infamiae quam detrimenti, Varianam paena exitiabilem, tribus legionibus cum duce legatisque et auxiliis omnibu caesis. Hac nuntiata excubias per urbem indixit, ne quis tumultus existeret, et praesidibus provinciarum propagavit imperium, ut a peritis et assuetis socii continerentur. Vovit et magnos ludos Iovi Optimo Maximo, si res p. in meliorem statum vertisset: quod factum Cimbrico Marsicoque bello erat. Adeo denique consternatum ferunt, ut per continuos menses barba capilloque summisso caput interdum foribu illideret, vociferans: Quintili Vare, legiones redde! diemque cladis quot annis maestum habuerit a lugubrem.