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Tiberius Chapter 9: Start of Tiberius' military career
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His first military service was as tribune of the soldiers in the campaign against the Cantabrians [25 B.C.]; then he [Note 1] led an army to the Orient and restored the throne of Armenia to Tigranes, crowning him on the tribunal. He besides recovered the standards which the Parthians had taken from Marcus Crassus. Then for about a year he was governor of Gallia Comata [ Trans-Alpine Gaul], which was in a state of unrest through the inroads of the barbarians and the dissensions of its chiefs. Next he carried on war with the Raeti and Vindelici, then in Pannonia, and finally in Germania. In the first of these wars he subdued the Alpine tribes, in the second the Breuci and Dalmatians, and in the third he brought forty thousand prisoners of war over into Gaul and assigned them homes near the bank of the Rhine. Because of these exploits he entered the city both in an ovation [7 B.C.] and riding in a chariot [9 B.C.], having previously, as some think, been honoured with the triumphal regalia, a new kind of distinction never before conferred upon anyone. He entered upon the offices of quaestor, praetor and consul before the usual age, and held them almost without an interval; then after a time he was made consul again [6 B.C.], at the same time receiving the tribunicial power for five years. |
Note 1: Tiberius
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Standard:When an army was in camp, they were fixed in the ground, each marking the station of the cohort to which it belonged; when they were taken up it was the signal for breaking up the camp and commencing the march.
Ovation:In the ovation the general entered the City on foot, in later times on horseback, clothed in a simple toga praetexta, and often unattended by his soldiers. In the "triumph" the general sacrificed a bull to Jupiter on the Capitol; in the "ovation" a sheep was substituted. Hence its name ovis (= sheep).
Triumph:The highest honour to a general: clad like Jupiter he drove in a chariot drawn by four white horses. Before him walked the prisoners taken in the war, and the spoils of the captured cities, and in later times pictures of the conquered territories were carried before the general's chariot. He was followed by his troops, who sung songs, often extempore effusions, in honour of their commander.
Quaestor:There were two sets of officers bearing this title, the commissioners of the treasure, and the "trackers of murder" -- as their title may be literally translated -- whose duty was to search for and bring up for prosecution those who had been guilty of capital crimes.