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Quote of the day: He was a man who masked a savage temper
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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book VI Chapter 4: Growth of the Republic.[389-8 BC]
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Camillus returned in triumphal procession to the City, after having been victorious in three simultaneous wars. By far the greatest number of the prisoners who were led before his chariot belonged to the Etruscans. They were publicly sold, and so much was realized that after the matrons had been repaid for their gold, (1) three golden bowls were made from what was left. These were inscribed with the name of Camillus, and it is generally believed that previous to the fire in the Capitol (2) they were deposited in the Chapel of Jupiter before the feet of Juno.

During the year, those of the inhabitants of Veii, Capenae, and Fidenae who had gone over to the Romans whilst these wars were going on, were admitted into full citizenship and received an allotment of land. The senate passed a resolution recalling those who had repaired to Veii and taken possession of the empty houses there to avoid the labour of rebuilding. At first they protested and took no notice of the order; then a day was fixed, and those who had not returned by that date were threatened with outlawry. This step made each man fear for himself, and from being united in defiance they now showed individual obedience.

Rome was growing in population, and buildings were rising up in every part of it. The State gave financial assistance; the aediles urged on the work as though it were a State undertaking; the individual citizens were in a hurry to complete their task through need of accommodation. Within the year the new City was built.

Renewed fighting in Etruria.

-- At the close of the year elections of consular tribunes were held. Those elected were Titus Quinctius Cincinnatus, Quintus Servilius Fidenas (for the fifth time), Lucius Julius Julus, Lucius Aquilius Corvus, Lucius Lucretius Tricipitinus, and Servius Sulpicius Rufus. One army was led against the Aequi -- not to war, for they acknowledged that they were conquered, but -- to ravage their territories so that no strength might be left them for future aggression. The other advanced into the district of Tarquinii. There, Cortuosa and Contenebra, towns belonging to the Etruscans, were taken by assault. At Cortuosa there was no fighting, the garrison were surprised and the place was carried at the very first assault. Contenebra stood a siege for a few days, but the incessant toil without any remission day or night proved too much for them. The Roman army was formed into six divisions, each of which took its part in the fighting in turn every six hours. The small number of the defenders necessitated the same men continually coming into action against a fresh enemy; at last they gave up, and an opening was afforded the Roman for entering the city. The tribunes decided that the booty should be sold on behalf of the State, but they were slower in announcing their decision than in forming it; whilst they were hesitating, the soldiery had already appropriated it, and it could not be taken from them without creating bitter resentment.
The growth of the City was not confined to private buildings. A substructure of squared stones was built beneath the Capitol during this year, which, even amidst the present magnificence of the City, is a conspicuous object.

(1): They had twice contributed toward the necessities of the commonwealth; the first time was to assist the government to discharge its responsibility under the vow of Camillus which he had made before the capture of Veii. The second occasion was when the ransom was being raised to buy off the Gauls.

(2): The Capitol was partially destroyed by fire in 83 B.C.

Event: Second war with Etruria

Camillus in urbem triumphans rediit, trium simul bellorum uictor. Longe plurimos captiuos ex Etruscis ante currum duxit; quibus sub hasta uenumdatis tantum aeris redactum est ut, pretio pro auro matronis persoluto, ex eo quod supererat tres paterae aureae factae sint, quas cum titulo nominis Camilli ante Capitolium incensum in Iouis cella constat ante pedes Iunonis positas fuisse. Eo anno in ciuitatem accepti qui Veientium Capenatiumque ac Faliscorum per ea bella transfugerant ad Romanos, agerque his nouis ciuibus adsignatus. Reuocati quoque in urbem senatus consulto a Veiis qui aedificandi Romae pigritia occupatis ibi uacuis tectis Veios se contulerant. Et primo fremitus fuit aspernantium imperium; dies deinde praestituta capitalisque poena, qui non remigrasset Romam, ex ferocibus uniuersis singulos, metu suo quemque, oboedientes fecit; et Roma cum frequentia crescere, tum tota simul exsurgere aedificiis et re publica impensas adiuuante et aedilibus uelut publicum exigentibus opus et ipsis priuatis—admonebat enim desiderium usus—festinantibus ad effectum operis; intraque annum noua urbs stetit. Exitu anni comitia tribunorum militum consulari potestate habita. Creati T. Quinctius Cincinnatus Q. Seruilius Fidenas quintum L. Iulius Iulus L. Aquilius Coruus L. Lucretius Tricipitinus Ser. Sulpicius Rufus exercitum alterum in Aequos, non ad bellum—uictos namque se fatebantur—sed ab odio ad peruastandos fines, ne quid ad noua consilia relinqueretur uirium, duxere, alterum in agrum Tarquiniensem; ibi oppida Etruscorum Cortuosa et Contenebra ui capta. Ad Cortuosam nihil certaminis fuit: improuiso adorti primo clamore atque impetu cepere; direptum oppidum atque incensum est. Contenebra paucos dies oppugnationem sustinuit, laborque continuus non die, non nocte remissus subegit eos. Cum in sex partes diuisus exercitus Romanus senis horis in orbem succederet proelio, oppidanos eosdem integro semper certamini paucitas fessos obiceret, cessere tandem locusque inuadendi urbem Romanis datus est. Publicari praedam tribunis placebat; sed imperium quam consilium segnius fuit; dum cunctantur, iam militum praeda erat nec nisi per inuidiam adimi poterat. Eodem anno, ne priuatis tantum operibus cresceret urbs, Capitolium quoque saxo quadrato substructum est, opus uel in hac magnificentia urbis conspiciendum.