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History of Rome (Ab Urbe Condita) by Livy
Translated by Rev. Canon Roberts
Book IX Chapter 29: The Censorship of Appius Claudius.[313-2 BC]
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The Samnite war was now drawing to a close, but before the senate could dismiss it entirely from their thoughts there was a rumour of war on the side of Etruria. With the one exception of the Gauls, no nation was more dreaded at that time, owing to their proximity to Rome and their vast population.

One [Note 1] of the consuls remained in Samnium to finish the war, the other, Publius Decius, was detained in Rome by serious illness, and on instructions from the senate, nominated Gaius Junius Bubulcus dictator. In view of the seriousness of the emergency the dictator compelled all who were liable for service to take the military oath and used his utmost endeavours to have arms and whatever else was required in readiness. Notwithstanding the great preparations he was making, he had no intention of assuming the aggressive, and had quite made up his mind to wait until the Etruscans made the first move. The Etruscans were equally energetic in their preparations, and equally reluctant to commence hostilities. Neither side went outside their own frontiers.

This year (312 B.C.) was signalised by the censorship of Appius Claudius. His claim to distinction with posterity rests mainly upon his public works, the road ( Via Appia) and the Appian aquaduct which bear his name. He carried out these undertakings single-handed, for, owing to the odium he incurred by the way he revised the senatorial lists and filled up the vacancies, his colleague, thoroughly ashamed of his conduct, resigned. In the obstinate temper which had always marked his house, Appius continued to hold office alone [Note 2]. It was owing to his action that the Potitii, whose family had always possessed the right of ministering at the Ava Maxima of Hercules, transferred that duty to some temple servants, whom they had instructed in the various observances. There is a strange tradition connected with this, and one well calculated to create religious scruples in the minds of any who would disturb the established order of ceremonial usages. It is said that though when the change was made there were twelve branches of the family of the Potitii comprising thirty adults, not one member, old or young, was alive twelve months later. Nor was the extinction of the Potitian name the only consequence; Appius himself some years afterwards was struck with blindness by the unforgetting wrath of the gods.

Note 1: One = Marcus Valerius
Note 2: If a censor died or resigned before the legal expiry of this office his colleague as a rule resigned also. See Livy V, 31

Events: War with Saticula and Samnites, War with Etruria.

[M. Valerio P. Decio coss.] profligato fere Samnitium bello, priusquam ea cura decederet patribus Romanis, Etrusci belli fama exorta est; nec erat ea tempestate gens alia, cuius secundum Gallicos tumultus arma terribiliora essent cum propinquitate agri tum multitudine hominum. Itaque altero consule in Samnio reliquias belli persequente P. Decius, qui grauiter aeger Romae restiterat, auctore senatu dictatorem C. Iunium Bubulcum dixit. Is, prout rei magnitudo postulabat, omnes iuniores sacramento adigit, arma quaeque alia res poscit summa industria parat; nec tantis apparatibus elatus de inferendo bello agitat, quieturus haud dubie, nisi ultro arma Etrusci inferrent. Eadem in comparando cohibendoque bello consilia et apud Etruscos fuere; neutri finibus egressi. Et censura clara eo anno Ap. Claudi et C. Plauti fuit; memoriae tamen felicioris ad posteros nomen Appi, quod uiam muniuit et aquam in urbem duxit; eaque unus perfecit quia ob infamem atque inuidiosam senatus lectionem uerecundia uictus collega magistratu se abdicauerat, Appius iam inde antiquitus insitam pertinaciam familiae gerendo solus censuram obtinuit. Eodem Appio auctore Potitia gens, cuius ad Aram Maximam Herculis familiare sacerdotium fuerat, seruos publicos ministerii delegandi causa sollemnia eius sacri docuerat. Traditur inde, dictu mirabile et quod dimouendis statu suo sacris religionem facere posset, cum duodecim familiae ea tempestate Potitiorum essent, puberes ad triginta, omnes intra annum cum stirpe exstinctos; nec nomen tantum Potitiorum interisse sed censorem etiam [Appium] memori deum ira post aliquot annos luminibus captum.